Description Allow usage of form and input tags.
Required Script <script async custom-element="amp-form" src="https://cdn.ampproject.org/v0/amp-form-0.1.js"></script>
Supported Layouts N/A
Examples See AMP By Example's annotated amp-form example.

Behavior

The amp-form extension allows the usage of forms to submit input fields in an AMP document. The extension allows polyfilling some of the missing behaviors in browsers.

The amp-form extension MUST be loaded if you're using <form>, otherwise your document will be invalid! Use of input tags for purposes other than submitting their values (e.g. inputs not inside a <form>) is valid without loading amp-form extension.

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Attributes

target

Indicates where to display the form response after submitting the form. The value must be _blank or _top.

action

Specifies a server endpoint to handle the form input. The value must be an https URL and must not be a link to a CDN.

This attribute is required for method=GET. For method=POST, the action attribute is invalid, use action-xhr instead.

For GET submissions, provide at least one of action or action-xhr.

action-xhr

Specifies a server endpoint to handle the form input and submit the form via XMLHttpRequest (XHR).

An XHR request (sometimes called an AJAX request) is where the browser would make the request without a full load of the page or opening a new page. Browsers will send the request in the background using the Fetch API when available and fallback to XMLHttpRequest API for older browsers.

This attribute is required for method=POST, and is optional for method=GET.

The value for action-xhr can be the same or a different endpoint than action and has the same action requirements above.

To learn about redirecting the user after successfully submitting the form, see the Redirecting after a submission section below.

other form attributes

All other form attributes are optional.

custom-validation-reporting

This is an optional attribute that enables and selects a custom validation reporting strategy. Valid values are one of: show-first-on-submit, show-all-on-submit or as-you-go.

See the Custom Validation section for more details.

Inputs and Fields

Allowed:

  • Other form-related elements, including: <textarea>, <select>, <option>, <fieldset>, <label>, <input type=text>, <input type=submit>, and so on.
  • amp-selector

Not Allowed:

  • <input type=button>, <input type=file>, <input type=image> and <input type=password>
  • Most of the form-related attributes on inputs including: form, formaction, formtarget, formmethod and others.

(Relaxing some of these rules might be reconsidered in the future - please let us know if you require these and provide use cases).

For details on valid inputs and fields, see amp-form rules in the AMP validator specification.

Actions

amp-form exposes one action: submit. This allows you to trigger the form submission on a specific action, for example, tapping a link, or submitting a form on input change. You can read more about Actions and Events in AMP in the spec.

Events

amp-form exposes the following events:

  • submit: Emitted whenever the form is submitted and before the submission is complete.
  • submit-success: Emitted whenever the form submission is done and the response is a success.
  • submit-error: Emitted whenever the form submission is done and the response is an error.
  • valid: Emitted whenever the form's validation state changes to "valid" (in accordance with its reporting strategy).
  • invalid: Emitted whenever the form's validation state to "invalid" (in accordance with its reporting strategy).

These events can be used through the on attribute. For example, the following listens to both submit-success and submit-error and shows different lightboxes depending on the event.

<form ... on="submit-success:success-lightbox;submit-error:error-lightbox" ...>
</form>

See the full example here.

Input Events

AMP exposes change and input-debounced events on child <input> elements. This allows you to use the on attribute to execute an action on any element when an input value changes.

For example, a common use case is to submit a form on input change (selecting a radio button to answer a poll, choosing a language from a select input to translate a page, etc.).

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See the full example here.

Analytics Triggers

amp-form triggers three events you can track in your amp-analytics config: amp-form-submit, amp-form-submit-success, and amp-form-submit-error.

You can configure your analytics to send these events as in the example below.

<amp-analytics>
  <script type="application/json">
    {
      "requests": {
        "event": "https://www.example.com/analytics/event?eid=${eventId}",
        "searchEvent": "https://www.example.com/analytics/search?formId=${formId}&query=${formFields[query]}"
      },
      "triggers": {
        "formSubmit": {
          "on": "amp-form-submit",
          "request": "searchEvent"
        },
        "formSubmitSuccess": {
          "on": "amp-form-submit-success",
          "request": "event",
          "vars": {
            "eventId": "form-submit-success"
          }
        },
        "formSubmitError": {
          "on": "amp-form-submit-error",
          "request": "event",
          "vars": {
            "eventId": "form-submit-error"
          }
        }
      }
    }
  </script>
</amp-analytics>

The amp-form-submit event fires when a form request is initiated. The amp-form-submit event generates a set of variables that correspond to the specific form and the fields in the form. These variables can be used for analytics.

For example, the following form has one field:

<form action-xhr="/comment" method="POST" id="submit_form">
  <input type="text" name="comment" />
  <input type="submit" value="Comment" />
</form>

When the amp-form-submit event fires, it generates the following variables containing the values that were specified in the form:

  • formId
  • formFields[comment]

Success/Error Response Rendering

amp-form allows publishers to render the responses using Extended Templates.

Using submit-success and submit-error special marker attributes, publishers can mark any direct child element of form and include a <template></template> tag inside it to render the response in it.

The response is expected to be a valid JSON Object. For example, if the publisher's action-xhr endpoint returns the following responses:

Success Response

{
  "name": "Jane Miller",
  "interests": [{"name": "Basketball"}, {"name": "Swimming"}, {"name": "Reading"}],
  "email": "email@example.com"
}

Error Response

{
  "name": "Jane Miller",
  "message": "The email (email@example.com) you used is already subscribed."
}

Both success and error responses should have a Content-Type: application/json header. submit-success will render for all responses that has a status of 2XX, all other statuses will render submit-error.

Publishers can render these in a template inside their forms as follows.

<form ...>
  <fieldset>
    ...
  </fieldset>
  <div submit-success>
    <template type="amp-mustache">
      Success! Thanks {{name}} for subscribing! Please make sure to check your email {{email}}
      to confirm! After that we'll start sending you weekly articles on {{#interests}}<b>{{name}}</b> {{/interests}}.
    </template>
  </div>
  <div submit-error>
    <template type="amp-mustache">
      Oops! {{name}}, {{message}}.
    </template>
  </div>
</form>

See the full example here.

Redirecting after a submission

You can redirect users to a new page after a successful amp-form submission by setting the AMP-Redirect-To response header and specifying a redirect URL. The redirect URL must be a HTTPS URL, otherwise AMP will throw an error and redirection won't occur. HTTP response headers are configured via your server.

Make sure to update your Access-Control-Expose-Headers response header to include AMP-Redirect-To to the list of allowed headers. Learn more about these headers in CORS Security in AMP.

Example response headers:

AMP-Redirect-To: https://example.com/forms/thank-you
Access-Control-Expose-Headers: AMP-Redirect-To, Another-Header, And-Some-More

Check out AMP By Example's Form Submission with Update and Product Page that demonstrate using redirection after a form submission.

Polyfills

amp-form provide polyfills for behaviors and functionality missing from some browsers or being implemented in the next version of CSS.

Invalid Submit Blocking and Validation Message Bubble

Browsers that uses webkit-based engines currently (as of August 2016) do not support invalid form submissions. These include Safari on all platforms, and all iOS browsers. amp-form polyfills this behavior to block any invalid submissions and show validation message bubbles on invalid inputs.

Note: Messages are sometimes limited to a few words like "required field", these messages are provided by the browser implementation. We'll be working on allowing publisher-provided custom validation messages as well as custom validation UIs (instead of the builtin/polyfill'd bubbles).

:user-invalid/:user-valid

These pseudo classes are part of the future CSS Selectors 4 spec and are introduced to allow better hooks for styling invalid/valid fields based on a few criteria.

One of the main differences between :invalid and :user-invalid is when are they applied to the element. :user-invalid is applied after a significant interaction from the user with the field (e.g. user types in a field, or blur from the field).

amp-form provides classes (see below) to polyfill these pseudo-classes. amp-form also propagates these to ancestors fieldsets and form.

Classes and CSS Hooks

amp-form provides classes and CSS hooks for publishers to style their forms and inputs.

.amp-form-submitting, .amp-form-submit-success and .amp-form-submit-error are added to indicate the state of the form submission.

.user-valid and .user-invalid classes are a polyfill for the pseudo classes as described above. Publishers can use these to style their inputs and fieldsets to be responsive to user actions (e.g., highlighting an invalid input with a red border after user blurs from it).

See the full example here on using these.

Custom Validations

The amp-form extension allows you to build your own custom validation UI by using the custom-validation-reporting attribute along with one the following reporting strategies: show-first-on-submit, show-all-on-submit or as-you-go.

To specify custom validation on your form:

  1. Set the custom-validation-reporting attribute on your form to one of the validation reporting strategies.
  2. Provide your own validation UI marked up with special attributes. AMP will discover the special attributes and report them at the right time depending on the reporting strategy you specified.

Here's an example:

Show full code

For more examples, see examples/forms.amp.html.

For validation messages, if your element contains no text content inside, AMP will fill it out with the browser's default validation message. In the example above, when the name5 input is empty and validation is kicked off (i.e., user tried to submit the form) AMP will fill <span visible-when-invalid="valueMissing" validation-for="name5"></span> with the browser's validation message and show that span to the user.

Reporting Strategies

Specify one of the following reporting options for the custom-validation-reporting attribute:

Show First on Submit

The show-first-on-submit reporting option mimics the browser's default behavior when default validation kicks in. It shows the first validation error it finds and stops there.

Show All on Submit

The show-all-on-submit reporting option shows all validation errors on all invalid inputs when the form is submitted. This is useful if you'd like to show a summary of validations.

As You Go

The as-you-go reporting option allows your user to see validation messages as they're interacting with the input. For example, if the user types an invalid email address, the user will see the error right away. Once they correct the value, the error goes away.

Interact and Submit

The interact-and-submit reporting option combines the behavior of show-all-on-submit and as-you-go. Individual fields will show any errors immediately after interactions, and on submit the form will show errors on all invalid fields.

Verification

HTML5 validation gives feedback based only on information available on the page, such as if a value matches a certain pattern. With amp-form verification you can give the user feedback that HTML5 validation alone cannot. For example, a form can use verification to check if an email address has already been registered. Another use-case is verifying that a city field and a zip code field match each other.

Here's an example:

<h4>Verification example</h4>
<form
  method="post"
  action-xhr="/form/verify-json/post"
  verify-xhr="/form/verify-json/post"
  target="_blank"
>
    <fieldset>
        <label>
            <span>Email</span>
            <input type="text" name="email" required>
        </label>
        <label>
            <span>Zip Code</span>
            <input type="tel" name="zip" required pattern="[0-9]{5}(-[0-9]{4})?">
        </label>
        <label>
            <span>City</span>
            <input type="text" name="city" required>
        </label>
        <div class="spinner"></div>
        <input type="submit" value="Submit">
    </fieldset>
    <div submit-success>
        <template type="amp-mustache">
            <p>Congratulations! You are registered with {{email}}</p>
        </template>
    </div>
    <div submit-error>
        <template type="amp-mustache">
            {{#verifyErrors}}
                <p>{{message}}</p>
            {{/verifyErrors}}
            {{^verifyErrors}}
                <p>Something went wrong. Try again later?</p>
            {{/verifyErrors}}
        </template>
    </div>
</form>

The form sends a __amp_form_verify field as part of the form data as a hint to the server that the request is a verify request and not a formal submit. This is helpful so the server knows not to store the verify request if the same endpoint is used for verification and for submit.

```

Here is how an error response should look for verification:

{
  "verifyErrors": [
    {"name": "email", "message": "That email is already taken."},
    {"name": "zip", "message": "The city and zip do not match."}
  ]
}

For more examples, see examples/forms.amp.html.

Variable Substitutions

amp-form allows platform variable substitutions for inputs that are hidden and that have the data-amp-replace attribute. On each form submission, amp-form finds all input[type=hidden][data-amp-replace] inside the form and applies variable substitutions to its value attribute and replaces it with the result of the substitution.

You must provide the variables you are using for each substitution on each input by specifying a space-separated string of the variables used in data-amp-replace (see example below). AMP will not replace variables that are not explicitly specified.

Here's an example of how inputs are before and after substitutions (note that you need to use platform syntax of variable substitutions and not analytics ones):

<!-- Initial Load -->
<form ...>
  <input name="canonicalUrl" type="hidden"
        value="The canonical URL is: CANONICAL_URL - RANDOM - CANONICAL_HOSTNAME"
        data-amp-replace="CANONICAL_URL RANDOM">
  <input name="clientId" type="hidden"
        value="CLIENT_ID(myid)"
        data-amp-replace="CLIENT_ID">
  ...
</form>

Once the user tries to submit the form, AMP will try to resolve the variables and update the fields' value attribute of all fields with the appropriate substitutions. For XHR submissions, all variables are likely to be substituted and resolved. However, in non-XHR GET submissions, values that requires async-resolution might not be available due to having not been resolved previously. CLIENT_ID for example would not resolve if it wasn't resolved and cached previously.

<!-- User submits the form, variables values are resolved into fields' value -->
<form ...>
  <input name="canonicalUrl" type="hidden"
        value="The canonical URL is: https://example.com/hello - 0.242513759125 - CANONICAL_HOSTNAME"
        data-amp-replace="CANONICAL_URL RANDOM">
  <input name="clientId" type="hidden"
        value="amp:asqar893yfaiufhbas9g879ab9cha0cja0sga87scgas9ocnas0ch"
        data-amp-replace="CLIENT_ID">
    ...
</form>

Note how CANONICAL_HOSTNAME above did not get replaced because it was not in the whitelist through data-amp-replace attribute on the first field.

Substitutions will happen on every subsequent submission. Read more about variable substitutions in AMP.

Security Considerations

Protecting against XSRF

In addition to following the details in the AMP CORS spec, please pay extra attention to the section on "Verifying state changing requests" to protect against XSRF attacks where an attacker can execute unauthorized commands using the current user session without the user knowledge.

In general, keep in mind the following points when accepting input from the user:

  • Only use POST for state changing requests.
  • Use non-XHR GET for navigational purposes only, e.g. Search.
    • non-XHR GET requests are not going to receive accurate origin/headers and backends won't be able to protect against XSRF with the above mechanism.
    • In general use XHR/non-XHR GET requests for navigational or information retrieval only.
  • non-XHR POST requests are not allowed in AMP documents. This is due to inconsistencies of setting Origin header on these requests across browsers. And the complications supporting it would introduce in protecting against XSRF. This might be reconsidered and introduced later, please file an issue if you think this is needed.

Styling